Fresh Fruits & Vegetables

Pomegranate

Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The total area under cultivation of pomegranate in India is 107.00 thousand hectares and production is around 743.00 thousand tons.

India is the largest producer of pomegranates in the world. India produces finest varieties of pomegranate having soft seeds, very less acids and very attractive colour of the fruits and grains.

Maximum cultivation of pomegranate is in states of Maharashtra and North Western Karnataka which are very close to the western port of Mumbai for exporting to Gulf and European countries.

The crop is available throughout the year, specifically from the Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Other commercially producing states in India are, Karnataka (January till April) & Andhra Pradesh (March till June).

Quality of pomegranate is much superior to Spain and Iran in edible quality and attractiveness.

Farmers have been trained for export quality production and have registered with GLOBALGAP certification.

Storage of Pomegranate

Temperature 5 – 7 degrees centigrade
Relative Humidity 90 – 95 %
Storage Period 2 – 3 months

Details of Sizing in Pomegranate Fruits

Size Code Weight in gms. (minimum) Diameter in mm. (minimum)
A 400 90
B 350 80
C 300 70
D 250 60
E 200 50

The varietal characteristics of commercially grown Pomegranates in India

Variety / Type Characteristics
Ganesh This variety has pinkish yellow to reddish yellow rind colour, having light pink arils and soft seeds. Fruit weighs between 225-250 gms with medium Total Soluble Solids. (T.S.S)
Ruby The fruit skin is red in colour and weighs between 225-275 gms. The grains are soft, having high Total Soluble Solids. (T.S.S)
Arakta Fruits are dark red in colour with soft seeds and with high Total Soluble Solids. (T.S.S)
Bhagwa The fruit is glossy red in colour with soft seeds and high Total Soluble Solids. (T.S.S)

**T.S.S.–> Total Soluble Solids

Details of Grade Designation and Sizing of Pomegranate as per AGMARK standard

Grade Designation Grade Requirements
Extra Class Pomegranates in this class must be of superior quality. They must have the shape, development and colouring that are typical of the variety and/or commercial type. They must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
Class I Pomegranates in this class must be of good quality. The following slight defects may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. A slight defect in shape. A slight defect in colouring and slight skin defects(i.e. scratches,scars,scraps and blemishes) not exceeding 5% of the total surface area.
Class II This class includes Pomegranates which do not qualify for inclusion in higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements. Following defects may be there provided the Pomegranates retain their essential characteristics as regard the quality, the keeping quality and presentation: Defects in shape and defects in colouring, skin defects (i.e., scratches ,scars, scrapes and blemishes), not exceeding 10% of the total surface area.

Good agricultural practices (GAP) undertaken for commercially grown Pomegranates in India, for domestic consumption and Exports

Using disease free and quality plant material of improved cultivars.

Adoption of high planting density.

Proper canopy management.

Integrated nutrient and water management.

Keeping proper load of fruits on the tree.

Timely control of pests and diseases by adopting IPM practices.

Flow process of essential operations of Pomegranate Exporters / Packers

Sr. No. Essential operations of Pomegranate Exporters / Packers (minimum)
1 Production
2 Monitoring pesticide/fungicide application program
3 Inspection at farm level or final field survey
4 Harvesting by hand and cutting stem properly
5 Transport to packhouse
6 Receipt at packhouse
7 Rejection of unwanted fruits
8 Washing with a disinfectant and then with clean water
9 Removal of excess water
10 Treatment with fungicide and wax
11 Drying
12 Sizing
13 Grading for quality
14 Nose cleaning
15 Packed into cardboard boxes
16 Precooling
17 Palletisation
18 Storage in cold store
19 Container loading
20 Transportation to port

Packaging Specifications for Exports

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Grapes

Fresh Grapes for Exports from India

Commercially grown Fresh Grapes

Variety Characteristics
Thomson Seedless Berries are oval to oblong in shape with T.S.S.18-22o Brix, acidity 0.5 to 0.7%
Sonaka Berries are elongated, cylindrical and amber coloured,T.S.S. around 22 o Brix,acidity 0.4- 0.7%
Sharad Seedless Berries are oblong to elliptical in shape and bluish black in colour with T.S.S. 18-21 oBrix and acidity 0.5-0.7%
Tas e Ganesh Berries are ovoid shaped and green to amber in colour with T.S.S. 20-22 o Brix and acidity 0.5- 0.65%

**T.S.S.–> Total Soluble Solids

Chain of events which happen upto shipment of Fresh Grapes

Sr.No. Guidelines
1 Receipt of raw materials at pack house
2 Weighment and acceptance of produce
3 Trimming, Sorting and Grading
4 Weighment
5 Packing and Coding
6 Pre - Cooling
7 Sulphur Dioxide padding
8 Palletization
9 Storage (Temperature Controlled)
10 Container Loading
11 Transportation

Packaging Specifications for Exports

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Onions

Onion Specifications for Export

Variety Description
Agrifound Dark Red The crop is global round in shape, big in size and dark red in colour.T.S.S. is 12- 13 brix and storage quality is medium.
Agrifound Light Red The crop is global round in shape, big in size and light red in colour.T.S.S. is 13- 14 brix and storage quality is good.
Agrifound Rose The crop is flattish round in shape, 2.5-3.5 cm in size and scarlet red in colour.T.S.S. is 16-18 brix and storage quality is good.
Agrifound Red The crop is 5-6 bulblets clump in shape, 2-2.5 cm in size and brick red in colour.T.S.S. is 9-10 brix and storage quality is good.
Pusa Red The crop is flattish round in shape and red in colour.Storage quality is very good.

**T.S.S.–> Total Soluble Solids

Grades of Onion

Grade Designation Grade Requirements
[EXTRA CLASS] Size Code 'A' - Diameter 10 - 20 mm

Difference between the diameter of the smallest and largest onion in the same package is 5 mm.
Onion shall be of superior quality. They shall be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The bulbs shall be: - firm and compact; - unsprouted (free from externally visible shoots); - properly cleaned; - free from swelling caused by abnormal development; - free of root tufts, however, onions harvested before complete maturity, root tufts are allowed.

They shall be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial blemishes, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
[Class I] Size Code 'B' - Diameter 21 - 40 mm

Difference between the diameter of the smallest and largest onion in the same package is 15 mm.
Onion shall be of good quality. They shall be characteristics of the variety and/or commercial type. The bulbs shall be: - firm and compact; - unsprouted(free from externally visible shoots); - properly cleaned; - free from swelling caused by abnormal development; - free of root tufts, however, onions harvested before complete maturity, root tufts are allowed.

The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. - a slight defect in shape. - a slight defect in colouring; - light staining which does not affect the last dried skin protecting the flesh, provided it does not cover more than one-fifth of the bulb’s surface. - Superficial cracks in and absence of part of the outer skins, provided the flesh is protected.
[Class II] Size Code 'C' - Diameter 41 - 70 mm

Difference between the diameter of the smallest and largest onion in the same package is 20 mm.
Onions which do not qualify for inclusion in higher grade but satisfy the minimum requirements. They shall be reasonably firm. The following defects, however, may be allowed, provided the onion retain their essential characteristics as regard the quality, the keeping quality and presentation. - defects in shape; - defects in colouring; - early signs of shoot growth visible from outside(not more than 10% by number or weight per unit of presentation); - traces of rubbing; - slight marking caused by parasites or disease; - small healed cracks; - slight bruising, healed, unlikely to impair keeping qualities; - root tufts; - stains which do not affect the last dried skin protecting the flesh provided they do not cover more than half the bulb’s surface;

Cracks in the outer skins and the absence of a part of the outer skins from not more than onethird of the bulb’s surface, provided the flesh is not damaged.

Export Onion Packaging & Other Details

(Generally there are 60 fills per 10 kg bag of onions)

Packing Specifications of some countries

Importing Nation Pack Size
Malaysia & Indonesia 10 kg
Sri Lanka 25 kg
Singapore 8 kg
Phillipines 20 kg
Middle East & GCC countries 5 kg / 10 kg / 15 kg & 20 kg

Sizes of Onion required in different countries

Importing Nation Size in mm
Middle East & GCC countries 40 - 60
Malaysia, Singapore, Port Kelang & African Ports 25 - 30
Sri Lanka 25 - 30
Bangladesh, Pakistan & Nepal 25 - 30
Europe 60 - 70
Japan 60 - 70

Fresh Storage of Onions

Description Variables Limit
Temperature 0°C
Humidity 65 - 70 %
Storage Period 3 - 5 months

Packaging Specifications for Exports

Videos

Onion Grader